Ini alasan mengapa oli dengan performa tinggi atau untuk long drain interval bisa tidak lulus uji API service


Sebelumnya penulis menceritakan tentang oli mesin yang ternyata kebanyakan tidak mencantumkan logo API donut yang merupakan tanda bahwa oli tersebut beneran sudah lulus uji API.
Apakah oli mesin di Indonesia pada nggak lulus uji API?, kok tidak ada tanda donat dan starburst API?

Dan ternyata beberapa pabrikan memang sengaja tidak melakukan sertifikasi API service. Alasan mengapa pabrikan oli menghindari sertfikasi API service diantaranya sebagai berikut:

Harga yang mahal

Sertifikasi API merupakan proses yang mahal sehingga beberapa pabrikan memilih untuk tidak melakukan sertifikasi. Berikut kutipannya:
Addressing AMSOIL & API Licensing

The cost for running a test program for a single passenger car motor oil formulation is from $125,000 to $300,000, depending on if the formula passes the tests the first time through, or if it requires multiple test runs or formula modifications to achieve a passing average.

Note: That amount goes to $275,000 to $500,000 for a Heavy Duty Diesel licensing program on a specific formula.

Once that testing is complete and the formula has passed all of the minimum requirements, it can be licensed for $825 per year for non-members and $625 per year for members. There is also a small royalty fee per gallon sold for all gallons over one million. The length of time between new specifications is now approximately 2 to 3 years, which does not allow a great deal of time to recover testing costs.

Who makes John Deere Oil and Is It API Licensed?

Note that John Deere oil it NOT API licensed because they refuse to pay for the priviledge.
John Deere Plus-50 engine oil is tested to and meets and exceeds all the API service classification requirements. We do not pay for the privilege of putting the donut on the container.

XPS Lubricants FAQ

There is a significant cost involved for certification and for using the API trademark, and for oils designed specifically for use in its own products, the costs are unnecessary expense. Secondly, many manufacturer oils are not certified so as to maintain confidentiality. These oils often contain proprietary formulations, and formulation disclosure is required during the API certification process.

Disebutkan bahwa ongkos untuk sertifikasi sangat mahal, belum lagi biaya tahunan, biaya royalty per produk dan biaya untuk bayar license dari resep yang dipergunakan. Untuk tiap resep berbeda butuh license terpisah juga.

 

Menghindari bocornya rahasia formula dan repotnya license untuk setiap formula

Dikatakan bahwa standar API dihindari untuk mencegah bocornya rahasia formula. Bagi yang mau mendaftarkan pun harus mendasarkan formula mereka pada yang sudah ada, sehingga harus bayar biaya license formula dari yang sudah ada.
XPS Lubricants FAQ

Secondly, many manufacturer oils are not certified so as to maintain confidentiality. These oils often contain proprietary formulations, and formulation disclosure is required during the API certification process.

Addressing AMSOIL & API Licensing

In the lubricants industry petroleum motor oils that are API licensed have “ read-across approval .” What this means is you can seek API licensing approval on a specific product, with a particular additive package, and then use read-across approval to market this same oil formulation in any number of oil viscosities. For example, if you license a 5W-30 with additive package ABC, then you can market your 10w-30 or 10W-40 engine oils with the API certification donut provided these other viscosities use additive package ABC. The API does NOT allow read-across approval on synthetic engine oils, which means that every single oil viscosity must be individually/separately, certified to carry the API certified donut mark of the API.

API Licensing, via read across approval, works for petroleum products, but the licensing process has a “stranglehold” on synthetic technology. This puts AMSOIL INC. in a tough situation. If we followed conventional practice, not only would we find it necessary to buy “ off the shelf ” oil formula components from specific vendors – and be at the mercy of their pricing – we would not be able to make any major improvements to the lubricant formulas for 2 to 3 years, without new testing and, not surprisingly, even higher associated costs.

Disebutkan bahwa untuk mendapatkan sertifikasi maka resep harus dijabarkan dengan terbuka, sehingga ini bisa menjadi sarana untuk kompetitor mencuri data.

 

Klasifikasi

Di standar API tidak ada pembagian klasifikasi peruntukan oli. Satu standar dipakai untuk semua. Tidak dibedakan antara keperluan long drain interval, racing, ekonomi ataupun harian. Ini berbeda dengan standar oli lain dimana pembagian lebih jelas.
Jim Halderman dan Jim Anderson – Engine oil icaia-spring 2009
acea untuk mesin bensin A3

standar oli mercedes

 

Tidak ada skala

Standar API hanya menentukan skala terendah saja. Jadi tidak dibedakan antara oli yang cumlaude dan yang cukupan. Dikatakan bahwa standar hanya diperuntukan untuk oli dengan kemampuan cukupan dan biaya pembuatannya murah.
Good thing Amsoil doesn’t stoop to API Licensing

Unfortunately for consumers, the API has no Certification for high performance: only minimum performance. Further, the API provides no reasonable certification options for genuine Group IV and Group V synthetics, deliberately maintaining a skewed structure that multiplies synthetic test costs by several times. In addition, the API Certification adds content restrictions (not required by the SAE, not required by the OEM’s) that prevent long drain intervals and prevent very low wear rates. So the world of API Licensing implies that high-profit mediocre products are high performance, it ensures that only petroleum-company oils can be cost-effectively Certified by the API, and it ensures that the world’s highest-performance products cannot be API Licensed/Certified at all. Fortunately for consumers who want high performance and high value, the API Certification monopoly is a voluntary trademark Licensing program that does not matter in vehicle warranties.

Jadi oli dengan API itu dianggap cukup oleh badan API untuk pemakaian di mobil sehari hari, namun kita tidak akan tahu seberapa bagus produk tersebut dibanding produk lain.

Kalau yang dari penulis rasakan, kualitas oli dengan sertifikasi API tidak bikin puas. Terasa pas pasan. Justru oli tanpa sertifikasi terasa lebih ok, asal bukan yang kualitasnya nggak jelas.

 

Batasan terhadap aditif penambah performa

Dikatakan bahwa standar API justru membatasi performa oli, seperti contohnya berikut ini dimana dikatakan bahwa oli untuk kendaraan yang sudah berumur seringkali tidak lulus sertifikasi API :
Q&A: SHOULD I SWITCH TO HIGH-MILEAGE ENGINE OIL?

Because high-mileage oils are usually not API licensed, I recommend waiting until your vehicle’s warranty period is over before considering switching.

High-mileage oils have ingredients to take care of older engines, like conditioners, seal swells, antioxidants, detergents and wear or friction additives. Typically they use a viscosity modifier that is durable and won’t lose viscosity very easily. These oils need to stay thicker longer to protect engine parts.

Over time, anything mechanical—even door handles—begins to loosen. Seals, gaskets and non-metal parts begin to decay as an engine ages. The higher-mileage oils are formulated with seal conditioners that increase flexibility and restore shape, which can help prevent leaks in the long run.

The bottom line is that high-mileage engine oils are designed for engines that are beyond their warranties and have 60-, 80-, 150,000 miles. Use it if you see a leak or notice rattling. This product can do a lot to protect engines

Disebutkan bahwa mobil yang sudah tua / dipakai lama(biasanya lebih dari 100 ribu km) membutuhkan oli yang mempertimbangkan keausan dari komponen yang sudah ada. Sehingga untuk itu membutuhkan aditif yang akan membuatnya tidak lolos untuk uji API.

 

XPS Lubricants FAQ

Friction modifiers make PCMO more slippery and improve mileage, but at the cost of engine protection. By design, Friction Modifiers fill in surface pores on oxide surfaces to make them more slippery. This is good for engine fuel economy to increase mpg, but it causes slippage in clutch discs that are supposed to grip, especially in Spyder and Sea-Doo applications.
The best anti-wear materials are limited in PCMO as they clog catalytic converters for on-highway vehicles. Superior anti-wear agents are permitted in powersports engines for superior engine protection.

Disebutkan bahan terbaik untuk anti aus dibatasi oleh standar karena dianggap dapat merusak catalytic converter.

 

AMSOIL: A Close Look

In addition, the lack of base stock read-across guidelines for Groups III, IV and V, along with the industry’s obsession over chemical limitations in motor oil formulas without taking drain intervals and specific chemical volatilities into consideration, causes an artificial limit for the performance capabilities of motor oils and formulation flexibility.

Performance Engine Oil: Knowing the Evolving API Regulations

Typically, if not always, the necessary performance oil is not API certified; because it was intended for high output applications.

Zinc and Phosphorus, or ZDDP, are the two main components that comprise the anti-wear package that exists in engine oil and what creates the boundary layer, or oil film, between mechanical components. Unfortunately these are the two additives that the API reduces, to extend catalytic converter life and efficiency. Since 2010, newest engine oil classification by the API is SN; zinc and phosphorus are limited to 800 ppm and 600 ppm, respectively. With the advancement of mechanical component technology (i.e. not using journal bearing turbos and flat tappet valve train), the necessity of these aggressive additive packages to compensate for mechanical deficiencies has been falling for vehicle manufacturers.

We often see high performance lubricants for engines that have in excess of 1,200 ppm for both zinc and phosphorus. Any engine that employs excessive opening valve spring pressures, use a high lift cam, a journal bearing turbo, and especially those with flat tappet valve train that warrants the necessity for high ZDDP levels. Lake Speed Jr. of Driven Racing Oil says, “the higher you go in lift and spring rate, the more you need the higher levels of ZDDP along with a more active type of ZDDP for maximum protection.” Detergents, or the cleaning agents in oil, work against anti-wear additives so there is a balancing act that takes place. Break-in engine oils commonly, and should, have zero to little detergents allowing ZDDP to do its job during the critical break-in period.

Dikatakan bahwa untuk mesin dengan kekuatan tinggi, standar API tidak mencukupi.

This page has been created to provide information about a serious deficiency in modern oils

By: Keith Ansell, Foreign Parts Positively, Inc.

About a year ago I read about the reduction of zinc dithiophosphate (ZDDP) in the oils supplied with API approval that could affect sliding and high pressure (EP) friction in our cars. The reduction of these chemicals in supplied oil was based on the fact that zinc, manganese and/or phosphates reduce the effectiveness and eventually damage catalytic converters and introduce minute amounts of pollutants into our atmosphere.

A month or so ago I had a member of the Columbia Gorge MG Club bring a totally failed camshaft and lifters back to me that had only 900 miles on them!! I immediately contacted the camshaft re-grinder and asked how this could happen. They were well aware of this problem as they were starting to have many failures of this type. In the past, the lack of a molybdenum disulfide camshaft assembly lubricant, at assembly, was about the only thing that could create this type of problem. My customer has assembled many engines and had lubricated the camshaft properly and followed correct break in procedures.

This got me on the phone to Delta Camshaft, one of our major suppliers. Then the bad news came out: It’s today’s “modern” API (American Petroleum Industry) approved oils that are killing our engines.

Next call: To another major camshaft supplier, both stock and performance (Crane). They now have an additive for whatever oil you are using during break-in so that the camshaft and lifters won’t fail in an unreasonably short period of time. They also suggest using a diesel rated oil on flat tappet engines.

AMSOIL Non – API Oils and the API Licensing Compromise

The prevalent sources of phosphorous in motor oils are additives called zinc dithiophosphates (ZDPs). These versatile additives contribute to reduced oxidation, corrosion and wear. The automobile manufacturers, however, have demanded that lubricants contain a maximum of only .08%
phosphorous. Their reason is some manufacturers believe higher phosphorous content levels will poison the catalytic converters on their cars before they reach 120,000 miles, which is the number of miles that vehicles are required to pass EPA emission standards. There is not total agreement within the automotive and lubrication industry about whether phosphorous levels over .08% actually do harm catalytic converters in the long run. What they have failed to make allowances for is the NOACK volatility of an oil, the volatility of the phosphorus itself, or the oil drain intervals.

The maximum allowable NOACK volatility percentage for the SM/GF-4 passenger car motor oil specification is 15%. Most of AMSOIL motor oils are in the 5% to 8% NOACK volatility range. There is a correlation between NOACK volatility and oil consumption, which ends up in the exhaust gasses. Therefore, higher phosphorous, low volatility oils present no more risk to catalytic converters than low phosphorous oils with higher volatility. This has also been demonstrated for years in actual application through state
mandated exhaust gas testing on our Dealers’ and customers’ high mileage vehicles using AMSOIL synthetic motor oils. State inspectors are continually amazed at the low emissions levels generated by vehicles using AMSOIL products. So much for poisoning catalytic converters. Why Some AMSOIL Synthetic Motor Oils Are API Licensed And Some Are Not

Disebutkan bahwa alasan mengurangi kandungan ZDDP di oli mobil kurang logis.

 

The Truth About Zinc & Motor Oil

If you have a stock valve train and no other performance modifications, then an API licensed oil is all you need. Every API licensed oil will protect stock engines under normal street driving cycles. When you start making performance modifications or begin racing, everything changes.

Many people have had good success with premium API licensed products in stock engine applications (as well they should). However, this can create a false perception that API licensed oils should work in every application, but this is simply not the case. When you go beyond normal valve lift, operating temperatures and cylinder pressures, the oil formula needs to adapt to these “new” requirements.

Because the modifications fall outside the OEM guidelines used by the API to determine oil performance specifications, an API performance level does not apply.

Zinc is not alone in your motor oil. Several other additives like detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, and others all compete against the Zinc inside your engine – sometimes with negative consequences.

Back in August of 2005 (less than a year after API SM was introduced), the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers published a story stating that calcium-based detergents and dispersants competed against the ZDDP for surface space, and that caused some wear issues in passenger car engines. Around this same time many engine builders began to experience a rash of flat tappet cam failures during break-in.

The level of ZDDP had also been reduced in the API SM oil spec, and along with the increased use of calcium detergents and dispersants, the critical balance had shifted. The results were nearly catastrophic for independent engine builders and camshaft manufacturers. The rate of flat tappet cam failures escalated at an alarming rate.

The decrease in ZDDP from 1,000 ppm down to 800 ppm was called out as the cause for the rash of cam failures. This failed to take into account the change in ZDDP to detergent balance.

Disebutkan bahwa karena pengurangan ZDDP beberapa oli yang diproduksi pada awalnya bikin mesin rusak karena kandungan aditif jadi tidak seimbang.

 

Kesimpulannya, membandingkan oli jangan pakai API service. Menentukan kualitas oli juga tidak bisa pakai API service.

Oli yang tidak menampilkan logo API Donut atau API Starburst adalah oli yang tidak lulus uji sertifikasi API. Memang bisa jadi kualitas oli tersebut jelek, namun dari contoh diatas ditunjukkan bahwa oli yang sengaja diberi aditif agar lebih berkualitas justru bisa jadi tidak lulus uji sertifikasi API karena penambahan aditif tersebut.

Aditif ZDDP membuat oli lebih awet dan melindungi, namun dengan alasan agar tidak merusak catalytic converter (alat pembuat udara buang lebih bersih di knalpot), penambahan sangat dibatasi. Sehingga akhirnya oli mesin yang lulus uji API justru terpaksa diturunkan kualitasnya.

Jadi terpaksa memilih oli cuma bisa mengandalkan pengalaman, baik pribadi ataupun orang lain. Dari konsumen untuk konsumen. Bukan dari pabrikan untuk konsumen, karena yang bikin standar dan yang mengatur juga sama sama dari pabrikan. Oli yang dipilih penulis sekarang ini adalah oli valvoline atau oli pertamina fastron. Berikutnya mungkin coba oli diesel pertamina. Kalau untuk merek mahal ingin mencoba merek amsoil.

Baca juga artikel lain tentang oli:

3 thoughts on “Ini alasan mengapa oli dengan performa tinggi atau untuk long drain interval bisa tidak lulus uji API service

    • Mengutip yang lain saja ya, berikut menurut saya mewakili:
      Review Yamalube Supersport Di New Vixion (2100 km), Maksimal!, Desember 22, 2014 · by Rideralam · in My ENVILAN, Otomotif, Part of My Life

      Rideralam.com – Ini adalah artikel ketiga tentang review pemakaian Oli Yamalube Supersport. Review kali ini setelah pemakaian 2100 km.

      Singkat saja, setelah memasuki kilometer ke-2100 performa Envilan sudah mulai ngos-ngosan. Bahkan dengan bahan bakar full 100% pertamax, tarikan dan akselerasi terasa tertahan. Berarti performa oli sudah tidak optimal lagi. Bahkan, ketika sudah dilakukan servis injeksi, tarikan masih terasa berat.

      Suara dezing mesin ketika di 700 km dan 1500 km terdengar merdu, kali ini di 2100 km sudah hilang sama sekali berganti dengan suara seperti gesekan antar logam. Kasar dan mencemaskan. Suara yang dihasilkan kala motor dibawa dengan kecepatan lebih dari 80 kpj sudah sangat berat dan cempreng layaknya pemakaian oli Yamalube biasa di kilometer 1000 ke atas.

      Kesimpulan yang bisa RA ambil dari Yamalube Supersport yaitu batas pemakaian untuk Envilan maksimal 2000 km, selebihnya performa langsung drop bahkan ketika sudah diservis.

      Untuk oli seharga 70 ribu Rupiah, performa stabil hingga 2000 km masih layak dibandingkan Yamalube biasa seharga 40 ribuan namun performa stabil hanya di 1000 km.

      Kalau menurut saya sih mending pertamina fastron.

      Suka

  1. […] Penulis menduga bahwa oli yang anti ausnya meningkat setelah ditambah aditif itu karena aditif anti aus di olinya dikurangi, sebagai sebab dari implementasi API SN. Ini sudah pernah penulis jelaskan sebelumnya: Ini alasan mengapa oli dengan performa tinggi atau untuk long drain interval bisa tidak lulus uji AP… […]

    Suka

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