Metode pengereman mendahulukan rem depan itu bukan metode safety riding standar internasional


Artikel ini sebenarnya sudah lama penulis kumpulkan bahannya. Baru ingat lagi setelah berdiskusi di postingan berikut:
Begini Tips Cara Ngerem Mendadak Tapi Gak Bikin Ngesot, 20 Mei 2017

Johanes Lucky, chief instructor safety riding PT Astra Honda Motor (AHM) mengatakan “Cara melakukan pengereman mendadak yang tepat itu, tutup gas dengan cepat, kemudian tarik rem depan, kemudian injak rem belakang. Makanya jangan biasakan kedua jari nempel di tuas rem depan saat sedang berkendara. Karena ketika melakukan pengereman maka secara spontanitas akan cepat memencet rem depan”

Kutipan tersebut mewakili apa yang diajarkan di safety riding Indonesia. Sepertinya semua lembaga pendidikan safety riding atau defensive driving di Indonesia mengajarkan metode itu. Kutipan kutipan senada sudah pernah penulis bahas sebelumnya di beberapa artikel. Salah satunya:
Ini riset yang menunjukkan ngawur dan bahayanya ajaran safety atau defensive riding mendahulukan rem depan dan melarang menaruh jari di tuas rem, 7 April 2017

Kali ini penulis akan membahas soal metode pengeremannya. Soal menaruh jari di tuas rem, di Honda internasional ada postingan berikut:
Street Braking: Braking Techniques for Street Riding

Di gambar tersebut disarankan agar menaruh jari di tuas rem agar respon tidak telat saat butuh mendadak ngerem.

Di link pertama ada yang tanya ke penulis apakah ada sekolah balap yang mengajarkan untuk pakai rem belakang dulu. Entah mengapa kok tanyanya jadi ke sekolah balap. Menurut penulis ilmu di motogp tidak selalu cocok diterapkan untuk harian. Yang lebih cocok menurut penulis pertanyaannya dirubah menjadi: apakah ada sekolah safety riding / defensive driving yang mengajarkan untuk pakai rem belakang duluan.

Jawabannya adalah ada.

Nggak semua sekolah safety riding itu mengajarkan pengereman mendahulukan rem depan, ada yang mengajarkan berbeda. Metode mendahulukan rem depan itu memang ajaran internasional, karena memang di luar negeri ada yang mengajarkan metode itu. Namun metode mendahulukan rem depan itu bukan standar internasional karena di luar negeri ada yang mengajarkan berbeda.

Contoh contoh yang mengajarkan mengerem depan dulu, selain yang di Indonesia

Buku panduan instruktur CBT (Inggris)
How to Become a Motorcycle Instructor Oleh David Harvey, Potential Notes For CBT Instructors

Emergency Stopping:
1. Accelerator closed
2. Ease front brake on
3. Ease rear brake on
4. Squeeze front brake harder
5. Clutch in & left foot down

Bagian dari Australia:
The Victorian Rider Handbook

Emergency Braking: apply the front brake first, using the four finger on the brake lever, then the rear brake

Website bekas trainer CBT (Inggris), thairoadcraft:
Emergency Stops and Slow Riding Control

Emergency Stop:
1/ Close Throttle,
2/ Front Brake
3/ Back Brake (a moment after the front)
4/ SQUEEZE don’t pull!

Website safety riding nosurprise (Inggris):
A Bike Odyssey – a journey on two wheels

‘Pass your Bike Test’: “front brake first, rear brake second, 75% / 25% front rear split in the dry, 50 / 50 in the wet”.

Website Prorider (New Zealand):
EMERGENCY STOPPING

Apply the front first, and then add gentle rear brake to suit your particular bike.

 

Contoh contoh yang mengajarkan mengerem depan belakang bersamaan

Negara bagian New Jersey (Amerika Serikat)
The New Jersey Driver Manual

• Apply both brakes at the same time. Do not apply the rear brake first.

Lembaga safety riding Motorcycle Safety Foundation (Amerika Serikat), petunjuk ini dipakai juga di banyak negara bagian di Amerika Serikat, seperti contohnya North Dacota atau Missouri.
Motorcycle Operator Manual

Maximum straight-line braking is accomplished by fully applying both front and rear brakes without locking either wheel.

Motorcycle Safety Foundation (Amerika Serikat):

Always apply both the front and the rear brakes at the same time. If necessary, apply them hard, but not so hard that you lock up either wheel. A locked wheel, as well as causing the bike to skid, results in downright inefficient braking.

Negara bagian Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)
Road Guide

Apply both brakes at the same time, using progressive pressure on the front brake, while slightly decreasing pressure on the rear brake as you slow. But, again, it is most important that both brakes be applied simultaneously.

University of Michigan, Amerika Serikat
ITEM WRITERS’ GUIDE FOR MOTORCYCLE RIDING: A PRELIMINARY OUTLINE HIGHWAY SAFETY RESEARCH INSTITUTE

16-3 EMERGENCY STOP
16-33A Applies front and rear brakes at the same time, avoiding sliding front wheel

 

Contoh contoh yang mengajarkan mengerem belakang dulu

Negara bagian Alabama, Amerika Serikat:
Motorcycle Safety Education, STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, DIVISION OF INSTRUCTION, DRIVER AND TRAFFIC SAFETY EDUCATION

1. Shut off the throttle,
2. Apply rear brake.
3. After the rely brake is applied, gradually supply the front brake.
4. Downshift as necessary when making your stop.
5. Keep throttle closed.

Website lazymotor (eropa)
Tips for braking on a motorcycle

When you want to brake with the shortest possible braking distance, you start by using the rear brake. A little bit later the front. By using the rear brake first, there is already more weight on the front wheel at the moment that you start using the front brake. Because of that, you can squeeze the front brake harder than when you would have started braking with the front brake.

File di departemen pendidikan Amerika serikat:
Expansion of Vocational-Technical School Programs to Accommodate Highway Safety Manpower_ Safety Requirements

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company has recommended several ways to stay alive on a motorcycle:
H. Brake the rear first. Then gently brake the front.

Website ridecoach:
Motorcycle Training

3. Apply your rear brake FIRST and then add front brake carefully as needed.* Don’t forget to lean back.

Manual motor emmo:
Emmo Urban S Owner’s Manual

Always use the rear brake first, then the front brakes. (Adjust this depending on what brakes are available on the bike)

Petunjuk safety riding klub Harled Davidson di Saudi Arabia.
Harley Owners Group – Riyadh Chapter

NEVER USE THE FRONT BRAKE FIRST: Train your instinct to ALWAYS go for the rear brake first. Brake first with your foot, not your hand.

Petunjuk safety riding klub Gold Wing di Ohio – Amerika Serikat.
Gold Wing Road Riders Association Chapter G2 of Ohio North East Section

5. Never Use The Front Brake First. NEVER. You must train your instincts to always go for the rear brake first. If you grab the front break with any kind of enthusiasm at speed, you will eat it. This is not a question; it is a fact. Brake first with your foot, not your hand — you’ll be glad you did.

Petunjuk safety riding klub Women In The Wind – Desert Curves sama seperti diatas.

Petunjuk motor Geely:
Geely 49cc Scooter

When braking, always engage the rear brake first to retain maximum control of the scooter. Most of your stopping power comes from the front wheel.

Manual motor Bajaj RT150 SCOOTER

When braking, always engage the rear brake first to retain maximum control of the scooter. Most of your shipping power comes from the front wheel.

 

Banyak juga kan?

Dari beberapa kutipan tersebut, rata rata alasan melarang mendahulukan rem depan adalah karena kalau ban depan selip susah recovernya dan resikonya langsung jatuh. Sementara itu rata rata alasan melarang mendahulukan rem belakang adalah karena kalau ban belakang selip maka motor jadi susah berhentinya.

Kalau dari sisi resiko, menurut penulis ban depan selip yang jauh lebih berbahaya. Soal ban belakang selip nggak bisa berhenti, ya rem depannya dipakai dong.

Beberapa kutipan yang memberi peringatan tentang bahayanya kalau ban depan selip:

Dari website Honda internasional:
Street Braking: Braking Techniques for Street Riding

Three-time AMA Superbike Champion Reg Pridmore. Reg has been conducting riding schools for more than a quarter of a century, “I recommend that you work toward the limits of braking regularly. If the rear wheel locks up momentarily, you’ll be able to get away with it. With the front, you’ll hear a telltale howling noise as the tire approaches the limits of traction. Become attuned to this, but don’t push it too hard—once the front locks up, you’ll likely crash. It’s a fine line. Know your limits, and operate within them.”

Juara tiga kali AMA Superbike Reg Pridmore telah mendirikan sekolah riding lebih dari seperempat abad. Ia mengatakan bahwa kita harus berlatih untuk mendekati limit pengereman secara berkelanjutan. Jika ban belakang terkunci sementara, maka kita masih bisa aman. Di ban depan, kita bisa dengan suara jeritan ban saat mendekati limit dari traksi. Hapalkan ciri ini, tapi jangan di paksa karena bila ditekan terlalu keras bila nanti ban depan terkunci, kita pasti akan jatuh. Batasnya tipin. Kenali dan pergunakan sesuai limit kita.

Sementara itu lembaga ansuransi keselamatan, Insurance Institute for Highway Safety mengatakan:
Effects of Antilock Braking Systems on Motorcycle Fatal Crash

Locking the front wheel is particularly dangerous, with falling down being almost certain. A locked rear wheel is more controllable, but still can lead to loss of control with a concurrent steering input, as in an emergency avoidance maneuver.

Ban depan ngunci itu sangat berbahaya, jatuh itu sudah hampir pasti. Ban belakang ngunci itu lebih bisa dikendalikan namun bisa kehilangan kendali bila sambil membelok, seperti saat ketika menghindar mendadak.

Dalam hal pengendalian, orang yang sudah terlatih pun bisa jatuh. Padahal kalau di sana itu latihan ngerem katanya sampai slip angle berapa begitu, tapi seperti bisa dilihat berikut ini, tetap saja bisa salah perkiraan:

 

Anjuran mendahulukan rem belakang itu dikatakan bisa meningkatkan grip ban depan sehingga saat pakai rem depan bisa lebih mantap. Sementara itu anjuran mendahulukan rem depan itu katanya karena waktu ngerem maka ban depan yang lebih banyak berperan dalam pengereman.

Seperti dijelaskan berikut ini oleh bekas instruktur CBT Inggris:
Emergency Stops and Slow Riding Control

Most of the motorcycle’s braking can be done with the front wheel. Long as the motorcycle is upright and you have good traction some tyre manufacturers say up to 90% can be front. As you apply the brake most of your weight and the bikes weight is being transferred forward down on to the front wheel. Importantly we apply the front fractionally earlier than the rear. This is in order to get the initial transfer of weight down onto the front wheel.

Katanya kebanyakan pengereman dilakukan dengan ban depan. Di saat kita mengerem, maka berat badan kita dan motor akan jadi dibebankan ke ban depan. Bila motor tegak dengan traksi yang bagus maka beban di depan bisa mencapai 90% kata pabrik ban. Penting untuk mengerem mendahulukan rem depan. Ini agar ban depan bisa dapat dapat perpindahan beban awal di ban depan.

Penulis tidak setuju dengan hal tersebut.

Yang pertama, perpindahan beban itu terjadinya bertahap, nggak langsung mak jleg 90% begitu mengerem, tapi naiknya pelan pelan. Seperti pernah dibahas sebelumnya:
Mengerem mendadak pun tidak bisa dilakukan tiba tiba, harus dengan halus transisinya, ini kurang ditekankan di safety riding, 10 April 2017

Jadi pada waktu awal awal pengereman, traksi ban depan itu ya jelas belum maksimal.

Yang kedua, untuk mengawali perpindahan beban bisa juga kok dilakukan dengan ban belakang. Bagusnya adalah pada waktu awal atau sebelum pengereman, grip ban belakang itu besar, sehingga cocok untuk dipakai mengawali weight transfer.

Task analysis for intensive braking of a motorcycle in a straight line

Emergency braking on a motorcycle equipped with a conventional braking system must involve use of the rear brake, even though it has a less important role than the front brake. It plays a role in the first instants of braking before the rear wheel becomes unloaded through weight transfer.

Pengereman mendadak di pada motor dengan sistem pengereman konvensional (maksudnya tanpa ABS) harus juga menyertakan penggunaan rem belakang, walau kalah penting peranannya dibanding rem depan. Rem belakang berperan terutama di saat instan pertama pengereman, sesaat sebelum beban ban belakang pindah kedepan karena weight transfer.

 

Di luar negeri juga orang orang hasil didikan CBT juga ada yang dijadikan bahan jebakan. Seperti contohnya berikut ini:
Guyonan:
How do you do an emergency stop?

The Spin Doctor on Thu, 24/02/2005: Ah… CSM trained instructor… When I turned up at the CSM site where I continued my downtraining 10 years ago, first thing they did was got me practicing e-stops on the various bikes, including the instructor bikes… so I did them on CGs, SRs, a GPz500, BMW 650, Triumph Trident…”You better try the scooters too”… said the senior instructor…As I buzzed back down the carpark, I thought “why are they all standing watching?” and applied the 75/25 rule…The front locked instantly, and I was lucky not to fall off… the last new instructor they had wasn’t so lucky – he broke his arm.

Saat itu the spin doctor hadir di tempat latihannya yang baru. Yang disuruh pertama kali oleh instruktur disana adalah menyuruhnya memperagakan pengereman di beberapa motor. Yang pertama motor sport gede gede dulu. Lalu terakhir sama instrukturnya di suruh coba skuter matik juga. Saat mengendarai di parkiran movil, ia heran mengapa kok para instruktur pada nonton. Dan ternyata setelah dia ngerem pakai ajaran CBR, ban depan langsung kekunci dan Ia beruntung nggak jatuh. Instruktur sebelumnya apes tangannya patah.

 

Walau dari negara inggris dan perserikatannya banyak yang menganut ajaran mengeremnya depan dulu, negara inggrisnya sendiri tidak melarang. Di instruksi untuk instruktur disebutkan demikian:
GOV.UK Guidance for driving examiners carrying out driving tests (DT1) – 02: The motorcycle test

The examiner should stand in a safe position near the controlled stopping box where they can observe correct use of both brakes. As soon as the front wheel has passed the speed measuring device the examiner should give the signal to stop with their right arm. Both brakes should be used effectively, however late or no use of the rear brake could be assessed as a rider fault if the machine stops quickly and under control. Very late or ineffective use of the front brake is not acceptable even if the machine is fitted with linked brakes.

Penilai harus berdiri di tempat yang aman dekat area pemberhentian sehingga bisa mengamati penggunaan dari kedua rem. Segera sesudah ban depan melewati alat pengukuran kecepatan, maka penilai harus memberikan tanda untuk berhenti dengan tangan kanan. Kedua rem harus dipergunakan secara efektif, namun penggunaan rem belakang yang telat atau tidak pakai harus dinyatakan sebagai kesalahan pengendara bila motor bisa berhenti cepat dan masih terkendali. Pemakaian rem depan yang terlalu telat atau tidak efektif tidak bisa diterima walau motornya dilengkapi dengan linked brake (combi brake).

Jadi, disitu tidak ada larangan untuk mempergunakan rem belakang lebih dulu. Yang nggak boleh itu bila rem belakang nggak dipakai atau telat dipakai. Juga kalau rem depan sangat telat atau memakainya nggak efektif.

Memakai rem depan nggak efektif itu biasanya terjadi karena pengendara takut menekan rem depan terlalu keras. Ini bisa diatasi dengan mendahulukan rem belakang, karena setelah pakai rem belakang maka grip ban depan akan lebih mantap. Ini bisa dirasakan.

Iklan

17 respons untuk ‘Metode pengereman mendahulukan rem depan itu bukan metode safety riding standar internasional

  1. Dg penerapan abs pada rem depan gimana, kan bisa membantu ban tdk mengunci. Secara praktek harian normal, saya lbh cenderung rem depan dulu. Jika jalan macet sering hanya pake rem belakang. Dalam kondisi panic braking rem depan dulu secara bertahap sampai max baru dibantu rem belakang.

    Suka

    • Iya, abs akan sangat membantu kalau pakainya rem depan dulu.

      Banyak yang dalam mengerem tidak berusaha mencapai limit grip dari ban (sampai bunyi), takut ngelock, sehingga pakai rem depan sekalipun jarak pengereman jadi nggak beda dengan kalau pakai rem belakang saja. Oleh karena itu penting untuk juga pakai rem belakang.

      Bisa juga baca artikel tentang beda mesin bigbang dan mesin screamer, dimana dijelaskan bahwa grip roda akan berkurang banyak bila terus menerus dibebani. Dengan mendahulukan rem depan, maka ban depan tidak fresh lagi saat rem depan ditekan lebih kuat. Sebagai hasilnya, grip lebih lemah daripada kalau pakai rem belakang duluan.

      Suka

  2. On the tarmac we can easily demonstrate our technique and can also demonstrate the phyiscics that backs it up.
    The sad thing about this is that someone can try and justify their own approach by sharing everything they can find on the internet that supports their point of view.

    50 years of professional research and experience, or someones opinions. your choice.
    The evidence speaks for itself.

    Suka

    • Yes, the evidence speaks for itself. For example, I found 16 motorcycle self crash video showing how people fall because of locking the front tire. I can not find crash video for other braking method. So it is amazing that there are people that consider using front brake first as a safe method.

      There is a german research from 610 motorcycle crash which conclude that 35% people do not brake during the accident. And 20% from the people who did brake, fall before the collision. That is a very high number.

      Front tire have the biggest role during braking, but many people in Indonesia are too afraid to use the proper strength so they brake poorly. But they have right to be scared because the above research show that locking front brake indeed dangerous.

      Many people even use only front brake, because they try to copy motogp rider. That is the reality here in Indonesia. Many did not even do the proper brake sequence. Unfortunately, there is no brake training class in safety driving in Indonesia. They only do braking demo. The rest of the time is for crawling test and slow slalom test. which is useless skill in real life.

      I really like nosurprise.org.uk point of view:

      The current system is based on outdated and unscientific ideas. In the ‘Old View’, it’s assumed that by applying the right skills and conforming to a strict set of rules, motorcyclists would not crash. Crashing must therefore be a result of lack of skill or the consequences of breaking the rules. ‘Lack’ of skills has been addressed by making it tougher to get a license or by encouraging post-test training. Punishment of those getting it wrong is used enforce this ideal, ‘normative’, behaviour, with fines, endorsements and even criminal convictions being used as a deterrent.

      The problem with this hindsight-based blame culture is that the crash has already happened, and with post-test training only taken by a small minority, neither approach does anything to equip other motorcyclists to avoid the same crashes.

      The ‘No Surprise: No Accident’ initiative proposes to change the current road safety thinking by adopting a ‘New View’ of safety based on lessons already learned in other safety-conscious industries, in particular by recognising the limitations of human beings in the way they think, act and react on the roads.

      Based on german’s research and youtube video, using front brake first shown to be dangerous, so the obvious choice should be to make people not using the front brake first. Same thing for covering the brake, since the majority of accident happen because lack of respon, then the correct action should be increasing the respon time of braking.

      I do wonder which research are being used to claim that using front brake first is safer.

      Suka

    • pakai motor matik justru lebih aman pakai rem belakang belakang dulu. Kan beban motor lebih berat dibelakang kalau skuter matik. Jadi di awal pengereman justru grip roda belakang yang lebih besar.

      Suka

  3. Brati ini juga bisa cukup menjawab kenapa Lorenzo pas di Yamaha hampir tidak pernah sama sekali menggunakan rem belakang, karna motor M1 mesinnya Inline 4 dan condong ke depan, membuat beban lebih bertumpu kepada Front End, sehingga pnggunaan rem depan bisa dimaksimalkan, beda sama Ducati yg pake L-4 90° yg bobot mesinnya cukup terbagi karna mesinnya ada sepasang yg condong kedepan dan sepasang lagi condong kebelakang, yg membuat pemakaian pengereman pake rem belakang jadi ada gunanya .

    Suka

    • Iya, saya lupa baca dimana, katanya lorenzo kalau cuma pakai rem depan motor ducatinya nggak mau berhenti cepat. Yang ngeremnya cuma pakai rem depan saja bisa jadi mengasumsikan motornya (matik, sport, dll) perilakunya sama seperti Yamaha M1.

      Suka

  4. […] Metode yang diajarkan oleh mereka yang beneran rider itu seringkali berbeda dengan apa yang diajarkan safety riding Indonesia. Mengapa penulis menyebut kata kata Indonesia? Karena di luar negeri nggak semuanya begitu. Metode pengereman mendahulukan rem depan itu bukan metode safety riding standar internasional […]

    Suka

  5. So sucahyoaji, There is no point in arguing with you as you insist on ignoring the science and practice to insist you are right despite the evidence. You selectively choose articles to argue your point but do not share any of the science or physics that demonstrates why we do it like we do.

    Such a shame as you correspondence and conformation biases strangle learning, lets hope that some of those reading it are more open mined to science than yourself.

    https://thairoadcraft.wordpress.com/2016/07/28/emergency-stops-and-slow-riding-control/

    Suka

    • I can’t find the evidence for why using front brake first is better. No one give usefull information. No one ever make comparison. I wish to share the sensation when I brake. Sadly, I don’t have action camera yet.

      Some people from Indonesia safety riding (trainer / trainee) did make comparison, but they only compare this braking method:
      – font first, then rear.
      – fron only.
      – rear only.

      The reader that strongly oppose my idea are all because they were fooled by lies. In their circle, they think I forbid the use of front brake. But in all of my article, I repeatedly and explicitly mention that I encourage people to use front brake, after using rear brake.

      I tried to clarify the lies, but unfortunately it seems to be useless. Someone even challenge me to remove the front brake and do braking race, which is stupid. I never suggest something like that.

      Suka

    • Hello,

      I make summary of your comment in this article:
      Terjemahan debat soal urutan pengereman safety riding metode Inggris dengan thairoadcraft

      short answer to my reader:
      – you do not apply rear brake first because you do not have enough skill to apply rear brake first without locking them or never spent time to train to never lock rear brake when applying rear brake first.
      – you are unfortunate enough to have motorcycle with stupidly overly strong rear brake, so even a very very light touch will lock rear brake.

      What I share to my reader:
      I once have motorcycle with front drum brake and rear drum brake. At that time it is much much easier to lock rear brake but it is almost impossible to lock front brake. At that time, UK braking method decision to use front brake first seems logical.

      Now I have motorcycle with front disc brake and rear drum brake. I consider it strange that there are no change in UK braking method. I consider it stupid to use front brake first when locking the front is much much easier than locking the rear.

      If I have motorcycle with front disck brake and rear disc brake, I will reduce the rear brake strength in case it is stupidly overly strong, then rally people to ask the manufacturer to reduce rear brake strength. For temporary solution, I may apply oil to the rear disc brake.

      Suka

Bagaimana menurut bro?

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